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cmjr306final evolution of fire

Using proper APA format in at least 800 words, briefly discuss the evolution of fire investigations and its impact on arson cases. As well as, briefly provide an overview of the reliability of computer fire models at trial. HINT: Search the APUS online library for this peer-reviewed article, i.e., Lentini, J. J. (2012). The evolution of fire: Investigation and its impact on arson cases. Criminal Justice, 27(1), 12-17,61. You may also wish to look at this source, i.e., National Institute of Justice. (2009, May 31). A Guide for Investigating Fire and Arson. … Please know that other peer-reviewed articles may be available on these topics located within the APUS online library, as well. (Note: If any of the HINT sources provided are not available for any reason; use other appropriate scholarly peer-reviewed sources located within the university online library to answer this question.) Or [ .gov ] sources located online.

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Arson cases like much of the criminal justice world have evolved tremendously over the years. Arson cases frequently had no DNA associated with them and relied on “expert” testimony that was anything but expert. In the beginning of arson investigations there were no set requirements to make an individual an expert on what could cause an fire or that it was an arson or not. Many individuals were wrongfully convicted and died as a result of faulty experts claiming to be experts on fire investigations. Fire investigations require the investigator to be well versed in physics and chemistry. It took decades for there to be a competent standard to evaluate if someone was a fire investigating expert or not. Richey v Bradshaw, 498 F.3d 344 (6thCir. 2007) helped to created the now existing standard. The basic requirement is outlined in NFPA 1033 and can also be found in NFPA 921, Guide to Fire and Explosion Investigations.

Many previous reports of expert testimony prior to establishing this standard were based on presumptive positives of K9 alerts or based on the evidence that the fire happened to appear to have an accelerant. The scientific standard set was questioned by the International Association of Arson Investigators (IAAI) in 1996 stating that investigators did not need to be held to a strict reliability standard because fire investigations were not the scientific. Eventually there were enough cases that had faulty claims by so called experts that yielded the U.S Supreme court in the Kumho Tire v Carmichael (1999) case to persuade people that it was necessary to accept the recommended scientific method. In 2000 NFPA 921 was sighted as a benchmark in a U.S Department of Justice (DOJ) research report entitled Fire and Arson Scene Evidence: A Guide for Public Safety Personnel. After the release of the research report completed by the DOJ the IAAI also for the first time endorsed the NFPA 921 after dispelling it years earlier. After the NFPA 921 was first accepted, from 1999 to 2008 the NFPA reported a nine percent decrease

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