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Obesity is one of the significant causes of type 2 diabetes, and also it appears to be related to aging, sedentary lifestyle, and genetic influence. Type 2 diabetes develops when the receptor cells have become less sensitive to the insulin—this insulin resistance results in less sugar being removed from the blood because the beta-cells cannot secrete sufficient insulin to keep up with demand (Le Gresley et al., 2021). On the other hand, type 1 diabetes is primarily due to the autoimmune-mediated destruction of the pancreatic beta-cell leading to insulin deficiency (Mishra & Ndisang, 2014). Juvenile diabetes is also called type 1 diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes. It is most commonly diagnosed in children, teens, and young adults, but it can develop at any age. Diet and lifestyle habits do not cause type 1 diabetes (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2021). Type 1 diabetes means using insulin. Because the body no longer makes this hormone. One has to take insulin several times during the day, including with meals. However, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes can be managed by healthy eating and exercise first. If the blood sugar is not well controlled, they may also need to use oral medications and insulin injection treatment (National Institutes of Health, 2016).Gestational diabetes (GD) is a serious pregnancy complication and type of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy. In most circumstances, this hyperglycemia is the consequence of impaired glucose tolerance. Risk factors for GD include overweight and obesity, advanced maternal age, and family history of any form of diabetes. In addition, GD includes an increased risk of maternal cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and macrosomia, and birth complications in the infant (Plows et al., 2018).Oral Medication of Type 2 DiabetesMost medications for type 2 diabetes are oral drugs. One good example of oral medication is a biguanide, and the most common is Metformin. Metformin helps control the amount of sugar in the blood by decreasing intestinal glucose absorption and how much glucose is made in the liver. Metformin comes as a liquid, a tablet, and an extended-release (long-acting) form

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