September 17, 2022

LIST THE ANATOMIC COMPONENTS COMPRISING THE LOWER MOTOR NEURON (LMN) UNIT AND DESCRIBE NORMAL NEUROMUSCULAR TRANSMISSIONa) List the anatomic components comprising the lower motor neuron (LMN) unitand describe normal neuromuscular transmission. (14 marks)b) Discuss the utility and application of electrodiagnostic studies in evaluatingpatients with neuromuscular disease. (14 marks)c) For both of the following conditions, explain the aetiopathogenesis of diseaseand where the primary defect in lower motor neuron transmission occurs:i. feline diabetic neuropathy (10 marks)ii. acute canine polyradiculoneuritis. (10 marks)2. Answer all parts of this question:a) Describe the normal pulmonary circulation and outline factors that contribute toboth the regulation of pulmonary arterial pressure in health, and the developmentof pulmonary hypertension. (14 marks)b) Outline the aetiopathogenic classification system for pulmonary hypertensionand for each category explain the mechanism(s) that contribute to developmentof hypertension using disease examples. (16 marks)c) Explain the methods and principles of indirect screening tests for pulmonaryhypertension. For each screening test identified, indicate the findings that wouldsupport a diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension. (18 marks)Continued over pageSmall Animal Medicine Paper 1 Page 3 of 4© 2015 The Australian and New Zealand College of Veterinary Scientists ABN 00 50 000894 2083. Answer both parts of this question:a) Define ‘self-tolerance’ and discuss the mechanisms that produce and maintainT and B lymphocyte tolerance in normal individuals. (30 marks)b) Define the terms ‘molecular mimicry’, ‘cryptic antigens’ and ‘bystander effect’and explain how each of these may contribute to the development ofautoimmunity. For each of these mechanisms, provide a unique example of aninfectious disease that may trigger loss of tolerance. (18 marks)4. Answer all parts of this question:a) Describe the anatomy of the glomerular filtration barrier and describe factorsthat determine the passage of substances across this filter. (12 marks)b) Outline the aetiopathogenesis and describe the expected diagnostic features inrenal biopsy specimens for each of the following glomerulonepritides:(18 marks)i. membranoproliferative glomerulonephritisii. amyloidosisiii. hereditary nephropathy.c) Explain the pathogenesis of the following complications associated with proteinlosing nephropathies: (18 marks)i. oedemaii. thromboembolism

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